Nose bleeds are caused by a rupture in a blood vessel, picking the nose or blowing the nose to hard are also common causes.

More serious causes of nose bleeds could be from head injury or raised blood pressure.


Sit down and tip the head forward, pinch the squashy part of the nose for 10 minutes.

Advise them to breathe through the nose.

If the bleeding stops, you don’t need medical assistance, the casualty shouldn’t pick or blow the nose and should avoid hot drinks for 24 hours.

Seek medical assistance if –

Bleeding does not stop after 30 minutes

Breathing problems

Nose bleed caused by serious accident

You swallow a large amount of blood

Casualty takes anti-coagulant drugs – e.g. warfarin

Casualty has frequent unexplained nosebleeds.

Nettle stings

Nettle stings are an itchy and sometimes painful, raised rash on the skin known as hives.

Nettle plants have leaves covered in hairs, and the hairs contain histamine and formic acid that irritates the skin.

If the skin comes into contact with the nettle leaves the reaction will happen within an hour. The casualty will develop hives which will be itchy and painful.


  • Nettle stings should not need hospital treatment.
  • Try a menthol cream to help reduce the itching and anti-histamines to relieve the rash. If pain is remains,  paracetamol can be taken.
  • If in doubt, ring 111 or speak to Pharmacist at the chemist.

Mini  Stroke (TIA)actfaststrokeposter

A mini stroke or TIA (Transient Ischaemic Attack) is like a Stroke but it may only last a few minutes.

A mini stroke is caused when the blood vessel carrying oxygenated blood to the brain is blocked, this is normally caused by a blood clot getting stuck in the very small vessels of the brain

In mini strokes; the blockage should clear its self in minutes or hours and be resolved in 24 hours.

To recognise a mini stroke use the F.A.S.T test:

FACE – has the face drooped on one side, the eyes or mouth may have dropped to one side. Casualty may not be able to smile.

ARMS – ask them to squeeze your hands or raise both of their hands.

SPEECH – speech may be slurred or they may not be able to speak at all.

TIME- call 999 straight away of the person has ANY of the three above problems

Other signs can include loss or blurring vision, confusion or dizziness, problems with balance and difficulty swallowing.

You must always ring 999


  • A mini stroke is a warning that you are at risk of a larger stroke.
  • Prevention is the main goal, this will include life style changes, stopping smoking, cut down alcohol consumption, healthier diet and take up exercise. Medication may also be given.



A viral illness which is very infectious, measles can lead to serious complications. Measles is spread by coughs and sneezes.

10 days after becoming infected the symptoms of measles may appear these include-

  • A temperature which can rise to 40C, cold like symptoms such as aches and pains and tiredness, red eyes and sensitivity to lights. Grey or white spots can appear in the mouth and throat.
  • A red brown spotty rash will appear and can spread across the whole body, the rash can last for a few days.
  • Other common symptoms of Measles can include ear and eye infections, diarrhoea and vomiting, if the temperature becomes too high in a child under 5, a febrile convulsion may occur.

You should make an appointment with the GP to confirm a measles diagnosis, explain when making the appointment it may be measles, remember this is very infectious.

More serious symptoms of measles include-

  • Shortness of breath, chest pain, drowsiness. Signs of confusion and coughing up blood.
  • Uncommon side effects can include liver infection, encephalitis (brain infection), squint or meningitis.
  • If you or the casualty develops any of the above symptoms you must go straight to A and E or ring 999.


  • Rest, plenty of fluids, take paracetamol or ibuprofen to relief pain and to control temperature.
  • If the eyes become sticky, clean the eyes using cotton wool soaked in water.

Its best to limit the spread of Measles so avoid school or work, stay away from pregnant women and very young children. Prevention includes the MMR vaccine and limiting the spread of infection.

Lyme Disease.

A Bacterial infection caused by infected Ticks. Ticks look like small tiny spider creatures.Untitled4

In the early days (3 to 30 days) after being bitten a circular rash may appear, the rash looks like a bull’s eye or target. The size of the rash can vary from a couple of centimeters to a couple of inches, and not every casualty will get the rash.

Other signs of Lyme disease include Flu like symptoms including muscle and joint pain, headaches, fever, and tiredness.

Lyme disease can be treated easily if diagnosed in the early stages.

In the later stages of Lyme disease which can occur weeks, months or years after being bitten the symptoms can become worse and cause longer lasting problems.

These include problems with the nerves including

– numbness, and paralysis to the face muscles

– memory and concentration problems.

-swollen and painful joints

-heart problems

-infection to the membranes of the brain.

A visit to the GP is needed if the casualty or yourself have any symptoms of Lyme disease or you think you have been bitten. The treatment for Lyme disease is a course of antibiotics if symptoms are severe, injected antibiotics maybe needed.

To remove a tick, take a pair of tweezers and pull the tick slowly away from the skin, DO NOT crush or twist the tick. Once the tick has been removed wash the affected area with soap and water and apply an antiseptic and see the GP.

Do not use a match or cigarette or alcohol to remove the tick. You can buy a tick remover which works for humans and animals from our website using the following link

Leg cramps.

icyhotpatchpainLeg cramp is a pain in the leg, which can happen suddenly and is caused by a shortening of the muscle in the leg. Leg cramps can occur in the feet and thighs but most commonly occur in the calf muscle.

During a leg cramp the muscle will become painful and tight. The toes and feet may also become stiff. Cramp can last seconds and up to 10 minutes.

Causes of leg cramp include – abnormal nerve activity, or strain during exercise. Other cause can include infection, pregnancy and dehydration.

Medical assistance is not usually needed for leg cramps.

Call your GP or 111 if:

  • If leg cramps are affecting your day to day life.
  • Last longer than 10 minute.
  • The cramp is a result of coming into contact with a poisonous or toxic substance.

Kneecap dislocation.

When the knee moves in a different direction to the leg, dislocation of the kneecap can occur. Kneecap dislocation is not common and is usually associated with sports injuries.

Signs of a dislocation of the knee will be a deformity of the knee, the casualty will also be in a lot of pain and they will struggle to walk. A crack may have also been heard, when the knee came out of the joint.

A first dislocation should be treated quickly and treated by medical staff. This type of injury can take up to six weeks to heal. Keep the leg, outstretched and as still as possible, call 999. Don’t pick the casualty up yourself as this may cause more damage.

Kneecap Dislocation

Jet lag


After a long flight you may feel tired and confused this is a sign of Jet lag. Your body can’t adjust to the new time zone and the longer the flight the worse the Jet lag. Jetlag can affect the body in many ways such as body temperature, blood pressure, and your appetite and toilet habits.

Jet lag is not serious and will settle after a few days.

To treat Jetlag, avoid napping as soon as you arrive at your destination wait until bedtime to sleep, and spend some time in the sun.

To prevent Jetlag drink plenty of fluids (not alcohol) and take small naps on the plane.


Ingrown toenails.

Painful, swollen and tender toes, caused by the toe nail curling and piercing the sides of the toe. Signs of ingrowing toenails include pain on touching the toes, a build-up of fluid around the area and swelling of the toe. The ingrown toenail may also cause bleeding and infection.

To treat an ingrown toenail, wash and dry the feet properly and cut nails in a straight line, if possible use a cotton bud to gently move the skin away from the toe and make sure to wear comfortable shoes.

Prevention is better, than cure when it comes to an ingrown toenail and prevention includes good foot hygiene, cutting the nails correctly and wear well fitted shoes. If the ingrown toenail becomes infected, see your GP or a podiatrist.

Insect bites and stings.


Usually not serious but can be painful and are very common. Signs of insect bites include red, swollen and itchy skin, the insect may leave a hole in the skin, as a defence some insects will inject venom. If the insects have injected venom the bite will look swollen, may become itchy and leave a red mark which fills with fluid.

Stings can be treated at home, if the sting is visible, you can scrape the sting out with a bank card. DO NOT use tweezers as you might pop the venom sac and spread the toxins. Apply a cold compress to reduce swelling and pain. Bites can be treated at home to, wash the affected area with soap and water; apply a cold compress to reduce swelling and any pain. Try not to scratch.

Insect bites and stings are usually not serious, but if you are someone else who was bitten or stung starts having breathing difficulties or severe swelling. Ring 999 straight away. (See Anaphylactic shock for more information) B - Bee Sting