When someone is bleeding heavily, the main propriety of first aid is to stop the bleeding and reduce the effects of shock. Some injuries can bleed profusely, where a varicose vein is damaged, the blood pours from the injury very quickly. Where an artery has been cut, blood can spurt from the injury in time with the heart beating.

First, dial 999 and ask for an ambulance.

If you have disposable gloves, use them to reduce the risk of any infection being passed on. Remember the casualty may be able to apply pressure to an injury themselves.

Check that there is nothing embedded in the wound. If there is, don’t press directly onto the injury with your dressing, instead press around the sides of the object and build up padding around the object before applying a bandage.

If there is nothing in the injury, apply and maintain pressure directly onto the wound with your hand, using a sterile pad if possible.
• Use a clean dressing to bandage the wound firmly.
• Raise the limb to decrease the flow of blood.
• Ensure your bandage is not too tight, loosen it by unwinding it a couple of turns if the area begins to tingle or go cold
• If bleeding continues through the bandage, apply another pad over the top and bandage it in place. Do not remove the original pad or bandage.


Grazes are a very common minor, non-life threatening injury that we have all suffered particularly during our childhood, as long as they are cleaned thoroughly and kept clean they won’t cause any health problems.

Most grazes are minor and can be easily treated at home and without medical intervention.
Bleeding from these injuries is usually minor and your priority should be to clean the area thoroughly.
Once the area is clean, apply a plaster or a non-adhesive dressing to the area and keep it dry and clean.
If the graze is bleeding heavily or is on a particularly delicate area of your body, such as the palm of your hand, you should stop the bleeding before applying any kind of dressing. Apply pressure to the area using a bandage or a clean towel.

To dress a graze at home:
• wash and dry your hands thoroughly
• clean the wound under running tap water, but do not use antiseptic because it may damage the tissue and slow down healing
• pat the area dry with a clean towel
• apply a sterile adhesive dressing, such as a plaster
Keep the dressing clean by changing it as often as necessary. Keep the wound dry by using waterproof dressings, which will allow you to take showers.