Eye injuries

Eye injuries can occur in many settings, including at home, at work or when playing sports. Eye injuries must be treated seriously as damage to the eye can lead to permanent loss of sight. Accidents at work that lead to any injury likely to lead to permanent loss of sight or reduction in sight must be reported to the HSE under the RIDDOR 2013 (see link below for further guidance


Common types of eye injury are:

  • → Blows to the eye – such as being hit by a fist, elbow or ball
  • → Scratches and abrasions – such as from fingernails or tree branches
  • → Foreign bodies – such as small pieces of grit, wood or metal getting in the eye
  • → Penetrating or cutting injuries – such as cuts from glass or projectiles flung from tools
  • → Chemical burns – such as exposure to household cleaning products
  • → Radiation exposure – such as exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light from the sun or sun lamps

You can flush your eyes in the following ways:

  1. Sit down and slant your head so the injured eye is lower than the unaffected eye (ideally over a bath or sink), then use a glass or cupped hand to repeatedly pour water across the eye from the bridge of the nose.
  2. If both eyes are affected, tilt your head back (keeping it level) and use a glass or cupped hand to repeatedly pour water across both eyes from the bridge of the nose.
  3. If you have access to a shower, aim a gentle stream of warm water at your forehead or just above the affected eye, while holding the affected eye open.
  4. If you are working outside, you can use a garden hose to rinse your eye, using a very low flow setting.

If an eye injury has been caused by a chemical entering the eye, follow the safety information on the container. In the workplace follow the COSHH guidance for the substance. Household chemicals such as bleach also have first aid advice on the packaging.

When to seek immediate medical advice

You should go immediately to your nearest accident and emergency (A&E) department if you have any of the following:

  • → Persistent or severe eye pain
  • → Foreign bodies that can’t be washed out
  • → Decreased or double vision
  • → Flashing lights, spots, halos or shadows in your field of vision
  • → Blood visible in your eye
  • → Pain when exposed to bright light
  • → Deep cuts around your eye

If medical attention is being sought cover the eye with a sterile dressing to protect it. The injured person should rest the other eye or close it to reduce the movement to the injured eye.

This information has been taken from http://www.nhs.uk/conditions/Eye-injuries/Pages/Introduction.aspx




Dislocations are extremely painful injuries that occur at the joints. The two bones at the joint are forcefully pulled apart, moving out of their normal position causing pain.

Common sites for dislocations are the shoulder, knee, hip, fingers.

Recognition features:

  • → Pain at the site of the injury
  • → Irregularity, deformity, swelling and bruising
  • → Difficulty in moving the affected part
  • → Crepitus (grinding of the bone ends when movement occurs)



  • → Don’t move the injured part
  • → Steady, support and immobilise in a comfortable position
  • → For upper limbs applying a sling may ease pain
  • → You may need to treat for shock, keep them warm (not too hot)
  • → Calm and reassure
  • → Call 999 for an ambulance if needed


Dislocated knee cap

dislocated knee caps




What happens when you have diabetes?


Diabetes is a condition where the amount of glucose in your blood is too high because the body cannot use it properly.

This is because the pancreas doesn’t produce any insulin, or not enough insulin, to help glucose enter your body’s cells – or the insulin that is produced does not work properly.

Insulin is the hormone produced by the pancreas that allows glucose to enter the body’s cells, where it is used as fuel for energy so we can work, play and generally live our lives. It is vital for life.

Glucose comes from digesting carbohydrate and is also produced by the liver.

For a person that has diabetes their body cannot make proper use of this glucose so it builds up in the blood and can’t be used as fuel.

There are two main types of diabetes: Type 1 diabetes and Type 2 diabetes.

  • → There is no insulin to unlock the cells (Type 1)
  • → There is not enough insulin or the insulin is there but not working properly (Type 2).


Diabetic emergency Hypoglycaemia (hypo)

Hypoglycaemia means ‘low blood glucose levels’. When blood sugar is low a diabetic hasn’t got enough energy for normal body activities.



Hypos can come on quickly and everyone has different symptoms, but common ones are: feeling shaky, sweating, hunger, tiredness, blurred vision, lack of concentration, headaches, feeling tearful, stroppy or moody, going pale. Often the person appears drunk and confused.

Why do hypos happen?

There’s no rule as to why they happen, but some things make it more likely: excess insulin, delayed or missed meal or snack, not enough carbs, unplanned physical activity, and drinking large quantities of alcohol or alcohol without food.

Treating a hypo

If the person is conscious, and can swallow treat the hypo immediately with fast-acting carbohydrate:

  • → Small glass of sugary (non-diet) drink
  • → At least three glucose tablets
  • → Five sweets, such as jelly babies
  • → Small carton of pure fruit juice
  • → Glucose gel.

If a person suffering from a hypo and becomes unconscious you will need to help by:

  • → Putting them into the recovery position
  • → Call an ambulance

The information for this blog was taken in part from the Diabetes UK website. Please visit the site as it is informative and useful to those suffering with diabetes, their families and first aiders who want to learn more about the subject,